Willow Warbler - Phylloscopus trochilus

The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in easternSiberia. It is strongly migratory, with almost all of the population wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. It is a bird of open woodlands with trees and ground cover for nesting, including most importantly birch, alder, and willow habitats. The nest is usually built in close contact with the ground, often in low vegetation. Like most Old World warblers (Sylviidae), this small passerine is insectivorous. In northern Europe, it is one of the first warblers to return in the spring though is later than the closely related chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita. It is a typical leaf warbler in appearance, 11–12.5 cm long and 7–15 g weight. It is greenish brown above and off-white to yellowish below; the wings are plain greenish-brown with no wingbars. Juveniles are yellower below than adults. It is very similar to the chiffchaff, but non-singing birds can be distinguished from that species by their paler pinkish-yellow legs (dark brown to blackish in chiffchaff), longer paler bill, more elegant shape and longer primary projection (wingtip). Its song is a simple repetitive descending whistle, while the contact call is a disyllabic 'hoo-eet', distinct from the more monosyllabic 'hweet' of chiffchaffs. Three subspecies are accepted, with a partly clinal reduction in green and yellow plumage tones from west to east, with central birds browner and easternmost birds predominantly greyish:

  • Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus (Linnaeus, 1758). Breeds Europe (from the Pyrenees and Alps northward) except northern Scandinavia, winters west Africa.
  • Phylloscopus trochilus acredula (Linnaeus, 1758). Breeds northern Scandinavia east to western Siberia, winters central Africa.
  • Phylloscopus trochilus yakutensis (Ticehurst, 1935). Breeds eastern Siberia, winters eastern and southern Africa.

All populations are highly migratory, with the subspecies P. t. yakutensis migrating up to 12,000 km from eastern Siberia to southern Africa along the Asian - East African Flyway, one of the longest migrations of any for a bird of its size. Approximate timings are:

  • October to March: wintering in sub Saharan Africa.
  • Mid March to mid May: migrates and arrives in the breeding range.
  • Late April to August: breeding season, usually only one brood but rarely two.
  • August to October: migrates back to Africa.        source wikipedia


Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/125
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Lage versterking omhoog
ISO-snelheid: 500
Lensmodel: 150.0-500.0 mm f/5.0-6.3
Lensspecificatie: 150, 500, 5, 6.3  


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