Dunnock - Prunella modularis

The dunnock (Prunella modularis) is a small passerine, or perching bird, found throughout temperate Europe and into Asia. It is by far the most widespread member of the accentor family, which otherwise consists of mountain species. Other common names of the dunnock include the hedge accentorhedge sparrow, or hedge warbler. The name "dunnock" comes from the Ancient British *dunnākos, meaning "little brown one." A European robin-sized bird, the dunnock typically measures 13.5–14 cm in length. It possesses a streaked back, somewhat resembling a small house sparrow. Like that species, the dunnock has a drab appearance in order to avoid predation. It is brownish underneath, and has a fine pointed bill. Adults have a grey head, and both sexes are similarly coloured. Dunnocks reside in the more mild western and southern parts of the globe, inhabiting much of Europe including Lebanon, northern Iran, and the Caucasus. Favourite habitats include woodlands, shrubs, gardens, and hedgerows. The main call of the dunnock is a shrill, persistent tseep along with a high trilling note, which betrays the bird's otherwise inconspicuous presence. The song is rapid, thin and tinkling, a sweet warble which can be confused with that of the Eurasian wren, but is shorter and weaker. Dunnocks are territorial and may engage in conflict with other birds that encroach upon their nests. Males who share a territory exhibit a strict dominance hierarchy that favors the alpha male in terms of reproduction. Furthermore, members of a group are rarely related, and so competition can result. Female territorial ranges are almost always exclusive. However, sometimes, multiple males will cooperate to defend a single territory containing multiple females. Males exhibit a strong dominance hierarchy within groups: older birds tend to be the alpha males and first-year birds are usually the betas. Studies have found that close male relatives almost never share a territory. The male’s ability to access females generally depends on female range size, which is affected by the distribution of food. When resources are distributed in dense patches, female ranges tend to be small and easy for males to monopolize. Subsequent mating systems, as discussed below, reflect high reproductive success for males and relatively lower success for females. In times of scarcity, female territories expand to accommodate the lack of resources, causing males to have a more difficult time monopolizing females. Hence, females gain a reproductive advantage over males in this case. source wikipedia

 

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/400
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 350
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 525
Versterkingsregeling: Lage versterking omhoog
ISO-snelheid: 800

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/250
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Lage versterking omhoog
ISO-snelheid: 800
Lensmodel: 150.0-500.0 mm f/5.0-6.3
Lensspecificatie: 150, 500, 5, 6.3

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/100
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 380
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 570
Versterkingsregeling: Geen
ISO-snelheid: 320
Lensmodel: 150.0-500.0 mm f/5.0-6.3
Lensspecificatie: 150, 500, 5, 6.3

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/40
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Geen
ISO-snelheid: 320

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/320
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Lage versterking omhoog
ISO-snelheid: 800

Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/125
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Geen
ISO-snelheid: 250

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/60
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Geen
ISO-snelheid: 320

Belichtingsmodus: Automatische belichting
Belichtingsmethode: Diafragmaprioriteit
Belichtingsduur: 1/160
Bestandsbron: DSC
Flits: Geen flits
ƒ-stop: 6,3
Scherptediepte: 500
Scherptediepte 35-mm film: 750
Versterkingsregeling: Geen
ISO-snelheid: 320

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